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Design Review Based on Failure Mode

History: DRBFM

Tatsuhiko Yoshimura developed the following method in 1997

The purpose is to find our errors, which occur as a result of intentional changes and the resulting unintentional changes in the product and process.


  • Less formalism, hence concentration on finding the problem
  • The working means and the procedure should stimulate the creativity of the engineers
  • DRBFM was integrated in the GD³ philosophy

What does GD³ stand for?

DRBFM Process

Procedural course of DRBFM

Analysis of the change (1-4)

  • Observation of the desired changes and identification of undesired effects

Analysis of the risks (5-6)

  • Discussion about the effects on internal and/or external customers

Developing and evaluating solutions (6/7)

  • The objective is to achieve successfully the desired change and at the same time effectively minimizing the risks.

Defining measures (7)

  • Based on verfications and validations
  • Developing and tracking the measures

Success monitoring  (8)

DRBFM working means

DRBFM-form sheet

  • Includes all changes, the risks emerging from them and all measures

Checklist of changes (Awareness-Sheet)

  • AInstructions to identify desired and resulting undesired changes

Table of changes (Change Comparison Table)

  • Comparison of the design until now and the modified design, makes the actual change clearh

Table of functions (Function Focal Point Table)

  • Describes the effect of the changes on the product systematically

Matrix of changes/functions (Change and Functions Concern Points Table)

  • Comparison of the functions relevant for the customer and the desired and resulting changes, thus shows the risks

The DRBFM-form sheet

Analysis of the Cause - Failure – Effect relations.

  • Presentation: Desired changes and the resulting undesired effects
  • Presentation: Effects on the function and risks
  • Determining measures for reducing the identified risks

Design Review

  • Presentation: Specification of the required measures and determining the responsibility
  • Presentation: Evaluation of the effectiveness of the determined measures

The DRBFM-form sheet – Analysis of the Failure chain

1 Description of the desired and undesired changes

  • Part / Component name
  • desired changes and reason for changes
  • Undesired changes, which arise from the desired changes, with justification 

Describe all specifications in detail

2 Description of the function

  • Describe the function of the part as much precisely as possible
  • Under which working conditions does the function occur?
  • Describe all functions precisely

3 Description of the Possible Failure mode due to the change

  • Describe the risks precisely
  • Collect other fears in team work

4 Description of the Occurance and the Failure causes

  • W-questions: When? / How often? / Where? / …
  • Negating functions
  • 5 x Why questions (W-method), in order to find out the true cause (measures are effective only if they are directed against the causes)

     5 Consequences

    • Which consequences arise for the defined customers?

    6 Current measures to Prevent Failures

    • Define measures
    • Follow thereby the operating conditions and requirements
    • When required, defined other measures (=>7)

    7 Determined measures (Results of DRBFM)

    • If Point 6: „Present measures“ are not sufficient, additional measures are developed
    • Naming responsible persons and deadlines

    8 Determining effectiveness of the measures

    • For every measure from the DRBFM, the following is determined
      • what was done
      • when and how
    • results